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Tentiamo di ricapitolare.

Sul blog della guida ai vini dell’Espresso viene pubblicato un post intitolato “Fenomeno naturale”, che ospita l’introduzione al nuovo libro che Giovanni Bietti dedica al fenomeno bio, biodinamico, eccetera.

Vi suggerisco di leggere il post e tutti i commenti.

La discussione tra il sottoscritto e Corrado Dottori – vignaiolo tra i più consapevoli (la passione per il più grande rocker di tutti i tempi ci unisce, per inciso) – prosegue qui, con un post di Corrado che, per spessore e profondità, è difficile da trovare anche nella carta stampata.

IL VINO NATURALE ED IL DOMINIO DELLA TECNO-SCIENZA

Pare che d’improvviso tutti si siano accorti dei vini naturali. Tutti a scrivere di filosofia “vinoverista”, di biodinamica, di marketing del bio, di vininaturali dentro Vinitaly, fuori, a metà strada.
Assisto con interesse e preoccupazione al dibattito. Noto, soprattutto, gli attacchi, i distinguo, le critiche, le insinuazioni.
Una larga parte di produttori “convenzionali”, di commentatori vari, di giornalisti, di bloggers, sostiene che l’aggettivo “naturale” sia fuorviante, sbagliato, eccessivo.
La critica più forte è fondata su tre questioni interconnesse:

1) Il vino “naturale” non esiste, perché l’uva naturalmente o marcisce o diventa aceto.


2) L’atto agricolo stesso è “innaturale”, poiché atto umano.


3) In ogni caso il riferimento a processi che limitano l’utilizzo della chimica deve restare nell’ambito di ciò che è normato dallo Stato (disciplinari del biologico).

Mentre i produttori “naturali” faticano a trovare un terreno comune di discussione, i loro “avversari” già sono in grado di affermare che il vino naturale è una falsificazione.
Trovo questa impostazione del problema facile e poco interessante. Nega, infatti, all’origine l’esistenza stessa del concetto di vino naturale. In questo modo si è risolto il problema, no?
E’ esattamente l’approccio occidentale nel momento del trionfo della tecno-scienza, per dirla con Heidegger. L’uomo sta su un piedistallo, nuovo dio, e la natura è fuori da sé. Perfettamente conoscibile, modellizzabile, manipolabile.

Ma è proprio così? O questa è proprio la deriva da evitare, proprio la strada verso l’abisso?
Qui non c’entra nulla l’ecologismo radicale. E’, invece, una questione ontologica. E’ una questione esistenziale. Se cioé l’uomo stia “nella” natura e non “contro” o “sopra” la natura. Se debba abitare il mondo o se, invece, lo debba piegare alle prorie necessità.
Quando nasce il movimento per l’agricoltura biologica la prima rottura, immediatamente, è sulla visione del mondo, sulla filosofia della scienza, su un nuovo umanesimo. Non certo su quali e quanti prodotti si possano o non si possano utilizzare.
L’uomo è – esiste – in quanto agisce “nella” natura, in quanto parte dell’essere tutto. In questo senso non è affatto un caso che la biodinamica sia filosoficamente fondata (per quanto poi si possa avere una opinione critica sulla filosofia steineriana).
E’ partendo da qui, dunque, che si può e si deve rispondere in modo critico e dialettico alle tre questioni sopra esposte.

Veniamo alla prima.

Innanzitutto è falso che, pressata l’uva, il mosto diventi naturalmente aceto.
L’acetobacter necessita di etanaolo, cioé di alcool. Dunque ogni acetificazione segue sempre una fermentazione alcolica. La quale avviene per una dinamica microbiologica naturale, per l’appunto. A me, cioé, pare vero, esattamente l’opposto di quanto si sostiene: nella fermentazione alcolica spontanea è la natura, è l’energia, è la vita. Dove interviene l’uomo? Nella decisione iniziale di pressare l’uva per farne vino, certo. L’uva non si pressa “da sola”. E poi nella corretta gestione del liquido, finita la fermentazione alcolica. Esaurita la carbonica, l’ossigeno inizia la sua azione destabilizzante, e l’uomo ha sperimentato nel tempo una serie di tecniche per frenarne l’azione.
Torniamo, allora, al punto filosofico. La contrapposizione netta fra tecnica e natura era presente già nei greci. Ma solo con l’uomo moderno diviene netta, come frutto di una visione schematica e tecno-scientifica dell’uomo.
Perché l’uomo decide di pressare l’uva e vinificarne il succo? Perché parte del proprio tempo, parte della propria esistenza, sono per l’uomo legate al piacere. Le bevande fermentate entrano nella storia come aspetto dionisiaco che costituisce, fonda l’uomo. Lo definisce, lo caratterizza ontologicamente. Si potrebbe dire che per sua natura l’uomo, perlomeno dagli egizi in avanti, trae giovamento, godimento materiale e spirituale, dal vino. Per-sua-natura. Cioé come fatto naturale, legato alla propria specie.
Se, dunque, esiste la possibilità di produrre naturalmente vino, senza alcuna aggiunta (ed è possibile, è sempre accaduto e sempre accadrà, si pensi ai famosissimi vini di Lesbo o Chios nell’antichità), per trarne quel godimento che è naturale-per-la-specie, ciò che resta aperto è il secondo problema, quello dell’”atto umano”, cioé della tecnica. Agricola, in primo luogo. E di conservazione del liquido, in secondo luogo.

Ora, in natura anche i castori adottano una tecnica per costruire le proprie dighe. Anche i leoni adottano una tecnica di caccia. Anche i formicai sono costruiti secondo una certa tecnica. Eppure a nessuno verrebbe da dire che sono “innaturali”. Anche l’ostetricia, oramai, è fatta di tecniche e procedure. Eppure usiamo ancora correntemente il termine “parto naturale”, per distinguerlo dal parto cesareo, frutto di una chirurgia molto più invasiva.

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